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HISTORY OF JAT COMMUNITY
Jats occupy a preeminent position in Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi and eastern Rajasthan, being the largest group in north-western India. They are divided into 12 clans and about 300 gotras. Though the origin of Jats is shrouded in mystery, they are believed to be an Indo-Aryan tribe, connected to the Vedic civilization (4500 BC - 2500 BC) that existed along the Saraswati river. Even today, the highest density of Jat population is along the dried bed of Saraswati, starting from Haryana, going on to Punjab and ending up in Rajasthan. They play a predominant role in this region. Agriculture, soldiering and cattle rearing have been the main occupation of the Jats, but now they are branching out in other fields like military and police. They are also well represented in government civil services.
Though the common definition refers to only the Hindu Jats, a significant number of Jats are Sikhs and Muslims. The Jats are not a homogeneous ethnic group living in a particular area and speaking a single language. Rather, they are a people who live scattered around the world among several ethnic groups, yet retain their own identity. This distinction is often based on occupation and heritage. The Jats are primarily located in north India and southern Pakistan, although there are said to be some communities in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Iran and Ukraine. However, their origin, history, and current dispersion are spread much wider. They are said to be of Indo-Aryan (or often, Indo-Scythian) descent. History proves that they reached Egypt with the Muslim conquerors, lived in Afghanistan before the Muslims, and invaded China with the Mongol army. They also proved to be a threat to Tamar Lane in Persia and Uzbekistan.
There is also a theory suggesting that they may be the predecessors of Gypsies. Whatever their origin, in the eighteenth century, the Jats became a force that could not be ignored. Jats are a brave, hardworking and independent minded people. Primarily agriculturists, the Jats led a fairly autonomous political life. Even during the Mughal period, the rule of the state was limited. With the exception of Bharatpur, no Jat kingdoms were founded. As per the Varna (Caste) system, the Jats are Kshatriyas or the warrior class. As they were outside the rigorous brahmanical social order, this position was not emphasized till the growth of the Arya Samaj among the Jats. Overall, the Jats have a very good self image and they are a proud people. 'Men may come and men may go, but I go on forever,' is a well known Jat proverb. They are brave, hardworking people who possess both the desire and ability to rule. It has been said that no Jat wants to be ruled. Rather, he desires to have power over a group, if not over an area.
The first opposition to Aurangzeb's autocratic rule came from the Jats of Mathura. In 1669, the sturdy and hard working peasantry of Jats under the leadership of Gokla, zamindar of Tilpat, rose against and killed the Imperial Faujdar Abdun-Nabi. It took more than one year for the powerful Mogul forces to subdue the Jats. Gokul was killed and his family forcibly converted to Islam. But this did not deter the Jats and they once again rose in rebellion in 1685 under the leadership of Raja Ram. Akbar's tomb in Sikandra was plundered by them in 1688. Finally the Jats were defeated and Raja Ram slain in 1691. But the brave Jats again got organized under the leadership of Churaman and revolted. They continued a strong armed resistance against the Mughals after Aurangzeb's death.
Towards the end of Aurangzeb's reign, bands of Jats under individual leaders like Rajaram, Bhajja and Churaman carried out depredations around Delhi and Agra. They slowly increased their power. But whatever they had achieved was lost when Sawai Jai Singh II captured Churaman's stronghold of Thun in 1721. Till this time Jats were never united and they followed their individual village headsmen. But all this was changed by Badan Singh, the son of Churaman's brother, Bhao Singh. Even in the face of great difficulties, Badan Singh established his authority over almost of Agra and Mathura by wisdom, versatility and marriage alliances with powerful Jat families. Badan Singh died on 7th June, 1756. His adopted son and successor was Suraj Mal.
Suraj Mal, has been variously described as 'Plato of Jat tribes' and 'Jat Ulysses' because of his sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision. Suraj Mal extended his kingdom to Agra, Mathura, Dholpur, Mainpuri, Hathras, Aligarh, Etawah, Meerut, Rohtak, Farrukhnagar, Mewat, Rewari and Gurgaon. He was described as the greatest warrior and the ablest statesman that the Jats have produced. Suraj Mal died on 25th December, 1763. Such was the might of the Jats that Bharatpur came to be known as the impregnable city. The beautiful palace and gardens at Deeg and the Bharatpur fort, both built by Suraj Mal , symbolized the coming of age of the Jat state. Soon, nobody dared question the Jats’ prowess in battle. A British general, Lord Lake, thought otherwise and paid dearly with his life for his decision to besiege the Lohagarh fort. At Deeg, the maharaja’s men successfully took on the might of a combined Mughal and Martha army of 80,000. Growing from strength to strength, the Jats even dared to attack the Red Fort in Delhi, the ultimate icon of power
Known for their military prowess, many Jats were recruited into the British-India Army during World War I. Before that, they served as fighters in the Persian army. A large number of Jats serve is in the Indian Armed Forces and form one of the largest ethnic groups in the army. The late Colonel Hoshiar Singh PVC, winner of the highest military award, the Param Vir Chakra came from a Jat family of Haryana. The Green Revolution brought considerable prosperity to the Jats in the late 60s and 70s. The Jat regions in India are among the most prosperous on a per-capita basis. Today, many Jats are well read and some occupy high positions in academic and technical arenas. Conservative by nature, the Jats rarely marry people from other ethnic groups. Great pride is placed in their ancestry. In fact, all the Jats in a particular village consider themselves to be the descendants of the man whom they believe founded it. Most Jats in India are Hindus, the rest being Sikhs or Muslims. The Jats living in Pakistan are primarily Muslim.
The Hindu Jats' religious beliefs are usually non-orthodox. A large number came under the influence of Swami Dayanand and the Arya Samaj in the early part of the 20th century. The Arya Samaji influence played a significant role in shaping the socio-religious identity. Until recent times, the Sikh Jats seemed to be the least meticulous in their observance of Sikh traditions, leaning more towards Hinduism. The Muslim Jats are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, but are known to have a strong tradition of worshipping many local saints.
Sir Chhotu Ram and Chaudhary Devi Lal (former Deputy Prime Minister of India), are the two most famous Jat leaders from Haryana. Seth Chhajju Ram was one of the most successful business man and philanthropist. Colonel Hoshiar Singh PVC won India's highest military medal, the Param Vir Chakra. Lt Gen Khem Karan Singh MVC was another great Jat soldier from Haryana and won the Maha Vir Chakra. Mallika Sehrawat, a very popular movie actress, comes from a well known Jat family of Haryana.
Other Jats from Haryana who won the Maha Vir Chakra award are: Captain Devinder Singh Ahlawat MVC, Lt Col Dharam Singh MVC, Major M. S. Chaudhary MVC, Havildar Fateh Singh MVC, Naik Shishpal Singh MVC, Lance Naik Hari Singh MVC, Sepoy Man Singh MVC and Major General S. S. Kalaan MVC.
"The Jats are not only a Hindu Caste; of coarse they are a race" - John Saymore said about Jats in Round About India 1953. The Jats have a proud history, but no historian. They have long memories, but little sense of history. Their record in patriotic valour is glorious. Rajputs had James Tod, the Marathas had Grant-Duff, Sikhs had Cunningham as historians but Jats had no historian.
A look at the Indian history reveals that after the resurrection of Hinduism by Adi Shankracharya, Kumaril Bhatt and Ramanujam, the caste-brahmin became the sole arbiter of new order and hierarchy. They distorted history and social precedence to suit them. Jats refused to brahmanical Hinduism. Kshatriyas who accepted the brahmanical supremacy unconditionally became favourites and were given dignified name of Raj-Putra, the modern day Rajputs. Jats drew the censure of the privileged Brahmin, hence, their historical background and contribution was underrated, distorted and ignored.
In India, either history was not written about in ancient ages, or the writings have perished. Even today, a number of ancient manuscripts lie in the great libraries of India, Iran, Central Asia and Middle East unread, uncatalogued and untranslated. Many might shed additional light on Indian history and particularly the ignored Jat history. One of the most urgent tasks of scholarships is the publication and translation of these various works.
History of India, as it is taught in our schools, colleges and universities, leaves many questions unanswered. Almost every alternate step, we have to put a question mark, and these question marks start from the very beginning of the historical period. Were the Aryans, native to India, or did they come from outside? If the latter, from where? Who were the Nandas and Mauryas? Why are they called the initiators of the Age of Sudra rulers? What happened to the Ksaharatas and the republican Tribes? Who were the Guptas? Why do the Puranas not mention the kings of the Maurya/Gupta dynasty? Who started our national eras, the Saka and the Vikram Samvatas?
Introduction to Jat History
It was in 1925 that Prof. Kalika Ranjan Quanungo’s “History of the Jat” appeared. It is still the soundest book on the subject; it is scholarly, but not an inspired work. Thakur Deshraj produced his book on Jat history in Hindi “Jat Itihasa” in 1934. It is a well-researched book and still serves as a reference book. It has not yet been translated in to English. Ram Swarup Joon has written another well researched book "History of the Jats" in Hindi in 1938 which was translated in English in 1967. In the last 80 years quite a few other books in Hindi came on the subject; notable by Kaviraj Dr. Yogender Pal Shastri, Capt. Dilip Singh Ahlawat, Dharmpal Dudi etc.
Bhim Singh Dahiya was a historian and civil servant belonging to the Indian Revenue Service (IRS). In 1982, he wrote the monumental book- "Jats the Ancient rulers", published by Dahinam Publishers, Sonipat, Haryana. This book is a reconstruction of the History of Jats from time immemorial. His linkage of the clan names/ Gotras to the existence of the Jats in Central Asia, and Europe, put a stamp on the histiography of the Jat History, for the people who could not have access to the works in Hindi or Urdu.
He brought out to the layman reader, that Chandragupta Maurya, the Kushans, the second Guptas, and Harshavardhana were Jats. He showed how the G letter was a substitution for the J sound, as the J letter did not exist in the ancient Greek alphabet. The significance was in determining who the Guti were, whom the Chinese and Western and most Indian Historians know as the Yuezhi, but are Jats, of whom Kushans were just one clan Kaswan, not a people unto themselves.
In 1992, he brought out his next book- Rig Vedic Tribes and Aryans, published by Dahinam Publishers, Sonipat, Haryana. Here he demonstrated how over 80 Jat Goths, Gotras, clans could be traced back to the Rig Veda.
His third great work in the history is in the form of Book- History of Hindustan Vol. I, II, III. Dahinam Publishers, Sonipat, Haryana also published it.
Dr Natthan Singh has written a very good book on Jat History in Hindi “Jat Itihasa” which is published by Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior in 2004. He was also editor of second edition (1992) of his book on Jat history “Jat Itihas” written in 1934 by Thakur Deshraj.
R.C.Majumdar in his book "History of culture of the people of India, the clasical age" (page 42) writes about their role in stemming the tide of Islam for two centuries as under:
"From the very commencement through every one of these routes. The early naval raids against Thana, Baroch and Debal and subsequent raids in the same direction mark the vain efforts to reach India by sea, of the land routes, the Kheyber pass was guarded by Kabul and Zabul while the Bolan pass was protected by the brave Jats of Kikan, If there had been history of India written without prejudices and predilections the heroic deeds of these brave people, the jats who stemmed the tide of Islam for two centuries, would certainly have received the recognition they so richly deserved."
Delhi was the site of the magnificent and opulent Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata, founded around 5000 BC. Hindu texts state that the city of Delhi used to be referred to in Sanskrit as Hastinapur, which means "elephant-city". A village called Indraprast existed in Delhi until the beginning of the 19th century. The British demolished the ancient village to make way for the construction of New Delhi in the late 19th century. Archaeological evidence suggests that Indraprastha once stood where the Old Fort is today. Excavations have unearthed shards of the grey painted ware (c. 1000 BC) that some archaeologists associate with the age of the Mahabharata, but no coherent settlement traces have been found.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya Period (c. 300 BC); since then, the site has seen continuous settlement. In 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273-236 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Two sandstone pillars inscribed with the edicts of Ashoka were later brought to the city by Firuz Shah Tughluq in the 14th century. The famous Iron pillar near the Qutub Minar was commissioned by the emperor Kumara Gupta I of the Gupta dynasty (320-540) and transplanted to Delhi during the 10th century.
Delhi was founded by Jats
- According to BS Dhillon the naming of Delhi has been done after Dhillon Jats.
- Professor Qanungo has written, "It is not unlikely that this famous city derives its name from the Dhillon Jats, who are still found in large numbers in Delhi district".
- Bhim Singh Dahiya also supports Qanungo's assertion by adding, "Its (Delhi's) old name was Dhillika as is recorded in the inscription of Someswara Chauhan, in 1169 A.D. Later on the suffix "ka" was deleted and the city was named Dhilli".
- A well known Indian historian, Romila Thapar, indirectly said that Delhi in the earlier times was called "Dhillika".
- As per Ferishta, a Persian writer of the early seventeenth century; "---Dehloo (Dhillon in Punjabi is pronounced as "Dhilon" or "Dhilo") the uncle of the young king, aided by the nobles, having deposed him, ascended the musnud. This prince, as famous for his justice as for his valour devoted his time to the good of his subjects, and built the city of Dehly".
- General Sir A. Cunningham, Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India, conducted a comprehensive study in 1860s and published his report in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
- Sir Cunningham wrote,"According to a popular and well known tradition, Dilli or Dhilli (Delhi) was built by Rajah (king) Dilu or Dhilu, whose date is quite uncertain. This tradition was adopted by Ferishta. I confess, however, that I have but little faith in the dates of any Hindu traditionary stories, unless they can be supported by other testimony. That the city Dhilli was founded by a Rajah of similar name is probable enough, for it is the common custom in India, even at the present day, to name places after their founders". Taking all of the above factors into consideration, and being aware of the fact that in India, non-Jats never have clan names such as Dhilu, Dhilo, or Dhillon, it is probably safe to conclude that the city of Delhi was built by a Dhillon Jat king and also Dhillon Jats claim their origin from a king as per Rose."
Jat rulers of Delhi
According to Thakur Deshraj the descendents of Maharaja Yudhisthir have ruled here for many generations. ‘Satyarth Prakash’ has mentioned the chronology of rulers of Indraprastha. The author of ‘Rajtarangini’ and editor of ‘Haripriya’ have published this list in their books. In this list there appears the name a king a ‘Jiwan’ descended from ‘Virmaha’. ‘Waqyat panch hajar risala’ has mentioned him as ‘Jiwan Jat’. Maharaja Jiwan ascended to the thrown of Delhi prior to 481 BC. He ruled for about 26 years.
Chronology of Jat rulers of Delhi
Satyartha Prakash by Swami Dayanand Saraswati has published a list of Aryan kings of Delhi. Raja Virsalsen was killed by Raja Virmaha. His 16 generations ruled Delhi for 445 years, 5 months and 3 days. Thakur Deshraj has given the details of thse Pandavavanshi Jat rulers. The chronology of these Jat rulers is as under:
- Raja VirMaha (817 BC - 800 BC)
- Mahabal or Swarupbal (800 BC-744 BC)
- Sarvdutt or Swarupdatt (744 BC-708 BC)
- Virsen (708 BC-668 BC)
- Singdaman or Mahipal (668BC-624 BC)
- Kalink or Sanghraj (624 BC-595 BC)
- Jitmal or Tejpal (595 BC-515 BC)
- Kaldahan or Kamsen (515 BC-506 BC)
- Shtrumardan (506 BC-481 BC)
- Raja Jiwan (481 BC-455 BC)
- Virbhujang or Hari Rao (455 BC- 424 BC)
- Virsen II (424 BC- 389 BC)
- Udaybhat or Adityaketu (389 BC - 372 BC)
According to Risala their period has been prescribed as under – Mahabal ascended to the throne of Delhi in 800 BC. At that time the ruler of Ujjain city in India was Buddha and Bahmanshah was ruler in Persia. After Mahabal, Sarvdutt or Swarupdatt ascended to the throne of Delhi in 744 BC. During this period Tamisang was born to Ladkun in Khata. Maharaja Virsen became the ruler in 708 BC when Darashah I was ruler of Iran. In 668 BC Maharaja Mahipal ascended to the throne of Delhi. He was so brave that he was popular as Singhdaman. During his regime Kastap had become the ruler of Iran. After death of Singhdaman, Kalink or Sanghraj sat on the throne in 624 BC. Raja Jitmal ascended to throne of Delhi in 595 BC. Kaldahan or Kamsen became ruler of Delhi in 515 BC. His rule extended up to Brahmpur which was known as Kamyvan (Kaman) after Kamsen. In 506 Strumardan became the ruler of Delhi after Kamsen. Thakur Deshraj has worked out the year 481 BC, when Raja Jiwan ascended to the throne of delhi. Maharaja Jiwan became the ruler of Delhi in 478 BC. During the rule of Maharaja Jiwan, one Persian delegation had come to India which studied the conditions of India by visiting various places. After Maharaja Jiwan, Virbhujang or Hari Rao, Virsen II, Udaybhat or Adityaketu were three Jat rulers of Delhi till 372 BC. Adityaketu lost his throne to his own Chieftain Dharandar or Dhaniswar due to conspiracy.
Thus Jats ruled Delhi for about 445 years.Raja Jiwan and his descendents were Pandav vansi. The rule of Delhi went to other people after 27 generations of Yudhidthira. After them Jogi, Kayastha, Pahadi and Vairagi people ruled Delhi. Vikramaditya was also a ruler of Delhi during this period.
) 37. budhe (4) 38. budhwar (10) 39. burdak (4) 40. chahal (3) 41. Chahar (2) 42. Chandel (4) 43. Chaudhary (2) 44. chhokar (10) 45. Chikora (1) 46. Chotya (1) 47. Choyal (4) 48. Dabaria (1) 49. Dabas (1) 50. Dabisa (4) 51. Dadarwal (3) 52. dagar (8) 53. dahiya (3) 54. dalal (19) 55. dandak (12) 56. dashpuria (2) 57. dedar (4) 58. deshwal (9) 59. dhadaria (6) 60. dhainyar (1) 61. dhaka (5) 62. dhanerya (1) 63. dhankad (3) 64. dhankher (2) 65. dhatiriya (6) 66. dhayal (1) 67. dhillon (1) 68. dhorelia (1) 69. dilwal (3) 70. dingwal (4) 71. dinwal (2) 72. diswar (4) 73. dondaria (2) 74. dongre (1) 75. dudi (6) 76. durwas (1) 77. dusadh (4) 78. fadak (1) 79. faraswal (4) 80. fogat (11) 81. foyar (1) 82. gadarwal (1) 83. gahlawat (3) 84. garhwal (1) 85. gathware (12) 86. gehlod (1) 87. gehlot (4) 88. ghanghas (8) 89. ghariyala (1) 90. godara (4) 91. gode (1) 92. godha (1) 93. golia (4) 94. golya (3) 95. gora (1) 96. gulia (2) 97. guriwal (2) 98. hanselia (8) 99. hathingarwar (6) 100. hudda (4) 101. indolia (4) 102. jajda (1) 103. jakhar (4) 104. janawa (1) 105. jangoo (4) 106. jat (22) 107. jhunkale (1) 108. kadwal (1) 109. kadyan (11) 110. kajal (1) 111. kalhari (1) 112. kalkhanda (7) 113. kapdia (1) 114. karwada (2) 115. kashyap (3) 116. kaul (1) 117. khainwar (11) 118. khairwa (13) 119. kharb (8) 120. khatri (1) 121. khod (1) 122. khoja (1) 123. khokhar (7) 124. khutel (8) 125. kudia (6) 126. kuhad (1) 127. kuiya (5) 128. kulhar (1) 129. kundu (3) 130. lachau (1) 131. lakkad (6) 132. lalau (1) 133. lalgathwaria (4) 134. lamba (1) 135. lauchak (1) 136 legha(5) 137. mali (7) 138. malik(32) 139. mandia(4) 140. mann (2) 141. marawat (1) 142. maya (1) 143. mehria (3) 144. menchu (2) 145. mohla(1) 146. motra(1) 147. mudwara (1) 148. mundel (7) 149. naga (1) 150. nain (3) 151. nandav (1) 152. narolia (9) 153. narwar (2) 154. nauhwar (11) 155. naunwar (5) 156. nawad (1) 157. nehra (10) 158. nonwar (8) 159. ohlan (4) 160. pachar (9) 161. pachhare (4) 162. padode (3) 163. paldia (1) 164. palwar (24) 165. pander (4) 166. pandhal (9) 167. paraswan (1) 168. paraya (1) 169. patel (7) 170. pawar (2) 171. penda (1) 172. pichkya (3) 173. poras (1) 174. puchhwar (22) 175. punia (5) 176. rahi (1) 177. rajaura (7) 178. rana (7) 179. ranwa (5) 180. rao (1) 181. rathi (16) 182. rawat (3) 183. ruhil (1) 184. sangwan (24) 185. saran (29) 186. saroha (1) 187. serawat (1) 188. sheshma (3) 189. shyorat (4) 190. sidia (3) 191. sigar (1) 192. sihak (1) 193. sikarwar (5) 194. sindhu (4) 195. sinsinwar (8) 196. sirohi (30) 197. siwach (4) 198. siyak (6) 199. sogarwal (6) 200. sohrot (14) 201. solanki (12) 202. soni (1) 203. takhar (3) 204. tanwar (3) 205. tewatia (5) 206. thadwar (1) 207. thakur (5) 208. thakurel (9) 209. thakurela (6) 210. tharol (18) 211. thenua (29) 212. thukrele (4) 213. thusya (3) 214. tomar (13) 215. toor (3) 216. verma (3) Total counts =1091
District wise distribution
The above data when compiled district wise we find the distribution of Jats in various districts as under:- Bhopal city (767), Rest of Bhopal district (79), Dewas (9), Dhar (5), Harda (35), Hoshangabad (9), Indore (23), Jabalpur (3), Khargone (3), Narsinghpur (7), Raisen (9), Rajgarh (11), Ratlam (1), Sehore (95), Shajapur (30), Tikamgarh (1), Ujjain (3), Vidisha (1) Total counts = 1091
- There are 216 gotras found in Madhya Pradesh.
- Maximum number of Jats was found in Bhopal. These are mostly engaged in various services, which have come from different states. Maximum variety of Jat gotras is also in Bhopal. The number of Jat gotras in Bhopal is 60. It appears that almost all people from Bhopal are members of Jat Sabha Bhopal. But Jat Sabha might not have accessed the interior areas for membership.
- Other areas in which Jats are found in sizable proportion are Bhopal district, Sehore district, Harda district, dewas district and Shajapur district. The Khategaon tehsil of Dewas district is very rich in Jat population which is not reflected in membership list. So I have added Dewas district by this observation.
- The list of gotras includes those of ladies also in many families. These gotras are few in number but provide variety to the gotras. In the list above Gotra with a single count normally indicates such Gotra. These are 78 gotras in the list.
- The larger fifteen gotras in decreasing order with counts are 1.malik (32) 2.sirohi (30) 3.thenua (29) 4.saran (29) 5.sangwan (24) 6. palwar (24) 7.balyan (23) 8. puchhwar (22) 9.bisayti (21) 10.dalal (19) 11.tharol (18) 12.rathi (16) 13.beda (16) 14.ahlawat (15) 15.sohrot (14)
- The Jats who became Zamindars in the state started using names like Thakur, Thakurel, Thakurele, Thakurela, Thukrele etc. All these combined are a sizable population making a count of 24 in the membership list.
- The Jats of Gwalior region put Rana as surname, which is based on a title.
- The Jat farmers of Malwa region use Patel as surname, which is used as a title for the headman of a village.
Regionwise distribution of Jats
Gwalior region is situated in north west Madhya Pradesh. The districts included in this region are Gwalior, Murena, Sheopur, Bhind, Datia, Shivpur and Guna. Gohad tehsil and part of Lahar tehsil in Bhind district; Murar block, Bhitarwar Block and Dabra tehsil of Gwalior district, Indragargh area of Datia district are consodered as a Jat belt. The Ranas of Gohad state are well known. The Jat rulers of Pichhore and Magrora were also very brave. There are 360 fortresses of Jat rulers and jagirdars in this Jat belt. Many of them are now in ruins. It is believed that there are many Jat families in this area who have huge amount of jwelry and gold.
The Sheopur tehsil of Sheopur district adjoining Rajasthan is also rich in jat population. There are many villages inhabited by Jats. About 40-45 villages around Sheopur are having Jats in majority. According to the records of Jagas and Bhats they had come to this area long back. It is believed that when Khilji was the ruler on Delhi, the Barauda area of Sheopur was ruled by Gond Rajas and the Jats of this area defeated Khilji. The oldest village of Jats here is Radep. This is inhabited by Kuradia and Mogar gotra Jats. Akodia gotra Jats were in the army of Maharaja Suraj Mal. After the death of Maharaja Jawahar Singh sardar Charandas Akodia came to Sheopur and settled here. He originally belonged to Ballabhgarh. He constructed a grand Laxman temple in Hasalpur, which is a unique example of architecture. He established his Jagir here. There are 8-9 villages of Akodia Jats at present out of these Talavra village is main. Other Jat gotras in the area are Mota, Punia, Rana (Ravna), Morya, Tagiya, Bhairovan, Dagar, Beniwal, Sinsinwar, Brahmanya and Dron. There was a Sikh Jat Jagir also in village Kailor whose last ruler was Hajari Singh. He was married in the family of Mursan rulers. Sheopur has a population of about 20000 jats. They are mainly doing cultivation. (Girraj Singh, Jat Veer, 1987-88)
There life and culture is similar to that of Rajasthan. There are Jat Sikhs also in many villages of Sheopur kalan, jaganapura, jalalpur, dabra and barahet in bhind. The Jat Sikhs are of Gotras Gill, Dhillon, Pannu, Sidhu, Aulakh etc. Shivpuri and Guna have less population of Jats scattered through out.
Gwalior city has sizable population of Jats. There are about 1500 families in Gwalior city in Mill area. About 500 families are in Gwalior city. Most of them have come from Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh for service or business. (Albel Singh Rana, JatVeer, 1987-88)
Hoshangabad - Harda region
Hoshangabad and Harda districts has good population of Jats and they have good land holdings. They are scattered in Banapura, Seoni malwa, Piparia areas. They have come from Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
Narsinghpur area has a good population of Jats and they are well off. They were the rulers in this area. There are many families of Jats in Jabalpur who are in service or doing business in Dairy. (PCS Chandel JatVeer, 1987-88)
The Jats in Malwa region are found in Ujjain, Dhar, Mandsaur, Ratlam, Shajapur, Rajgarh, Dewas districts. They are dwilling in the rural areas of these districts. They are mainly dependent on agriculture. They follow the Rajasthani culture and language of about 500 years old. They worship Shiva, Rama, Lord Krishna, and Tejaji. Malwa people have great respect for out sider Jats and treat him as a god. (Kacharu Lal Olhan JatVeer, 1987-88)
Mandsaur and Neemach districts have a population of about 150000 Jats. Neemach town has about 250 families of Jats dwelling here. Mandsaur district has a rich Jat population in some villages. The Jats are classified in two categories here namely, Keje Jats and Meware Jats. They do not have marital relations with each other. In Mandsaur district there are about 78 villages with population of Keje Jats and rest are villages of Meware Jats. (Mohan Singh Jat Veer, 1987-88)
There are number of villages in Neemach after Jats e.g. Jat, Dayara, Luharia etc. Similarly Mandsaur also has villages after Jat gotras like Bailara, Muala etc.
Maharashtra is India's third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. It is bordered by the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. Mumbai (Bombay), India's largest city, is the capital of Maharashtra.
Maharashtra was known as Rashtra in the Rig Veda, Rashtrik in Ashoka's inscriptions, and Maha rashtra afterwards, as attested by Huein-Tsang and other travellers. The name appears to have been derived from Maharashtri, in an old form of Prakrit, an ancient Indian language.
Jats in Maharashtra
Maharashtra is the state which is not normally regarded as having any Jat population. It is not true. The Jats had gone to some parts of Maharastra about 4 – 5 generations back. They are settled in the interior areas and doing cultivation. They came from states like Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana etc. Jats are dwelling in Nasik, Jalgaon, Dhuliya, Aurangabad, Amravati districts. The Jat villages in these areas are called ‘Bavisi’. The villages in Jat ‘Bavisi’ are:
Nasik – Tokra, Jalkoo, Rajmana, Palarde, Hatane, Saytarpara, Jatpara (Nimbayatpada), Bhutpara, Dapaura, Chinchagyaha, Nardana, Palasdara, Lakhane
Jalgaon – Pinjarpara (Ramnagar), Rajoon, Manur, Talonda
Dhuliya – Kulthe
Aurangabad – Pardi, Anjangaon, Jalna, Lodhebari, Bamnod
Tokra (tehsil – Malegaon) in Nasik district is the main village of Jat Bavisi. This village is famous for cooperative societies in dairy. National leaders like Dara Singh, Dhrmendra, Ram Niwas Mirdha etc have visited Tokra village. There is one taluka named Jat in Sangli district situated in south Maharashtra.
Festivals by Jats
The Jats in the region celebrate Gokul ashtmi (Janmashtmi) with great preparations in each house. Other festivals Jats celebrate are Diwali, Dashara, Pola, Rakshabandhan, Ramnavami, Shivratri, Holi etc.
The other areas in Maharashtra where Jats dwel are the villages - Londha of Chalisgaon in Jalgaon district, Amravati (Pardi via Badner), Bhusawal tehsil of Bhusawal district, Chandrapur (Vardha) Hinganghat, Anjangaon, Ripur, Kasarkhera Akola, Khamgaon, Jatola etc.
Language and culture
There is a great similarity in culture of farming communities of Maharashtra and that of Jat belt in north India. The living of Local Marathas is amost equal to Jats. The areas look like Jat areas are Pune, Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur etc. The pehalwans of this area are famous.
The pronunciation of some of the words like pani (water) , gavadi (cow), bheent (wall), bhijna (to get wet), cha/chaha (tea), handna/hindna (to roam), alla/ola (wet), Gaavti (desi murga), Kanda (Onion), Jiman (Lunch), Pawane(Guest) etc are similar in Marathi and the Jat Languages. The existence of ‘L’ (ळ) is found in Marathi and Jat Languages only and not in other language. Water is pronounced as paani (पाणी) in both regions.
Jat Gotras in Maharashtra
The list of Jat gotras found in Maharashtra state is given below. Some of clans pronunciated differently in that local area have been given in the bracket. Aulakh (Walan), Bajad, Baje, Barad, Behra, Beniwal, Bher, Bichhu, Bijarnia(Bijarne), Birang, Chaudhary, Chharang, Chopra, Chune, Dahiya(Dahe), Darakha, Deol, Dhariwal, Dingar, Durasra, Gadar, Gill, Godara, Goyat, Hal, Indolia (Hindane), Jakhar, Jhajra, Jhinjhar, Johni, Ka, Kachha, Kala, Karil, Katar, Kate, Kohad, Lalwane, Lathar, Lidrad, Maan, Nakhal, Nehra, Nimde, Nitharwal, Pagal, Paras, Punia (Pune), Ragi, Rah, Randhawa, Rasoda, Rathor, Rojh, Sangera, Sarag, Sardan, Sehrawat (Sarawat), Shemad, Sia, Sindhu, Sumrao, Suran, Teja, Todawat,
Punjab, Urdu: پنجاب, is a state in northwest India. The total area of the state is 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square miles). The population is 24,289,296 (2000). Punjab's capital is Chandigarh, which is administered separately as a Union Territory since it is also the capital of neighbouring Haryana. Other major cities of Punjab include Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Patiala. The state is the location of one of the world's first and oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization, India's first civilization.
Punjab (India) historically forms a part of the larger Punjab region, which also includes the province of Punjab (Pakistan), the Indian states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh and Delhi and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. Indian Punjab was trifurcated in the year 1966 leading to the formation of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
The word "Punjab" is a combination of the Persian words 'panj' (پنج) Five, and 'āb' (آب) Water, giving the literal meaning of the Land of the Five Rivers. The five rivers, after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum; the Chenab; the Ravi; the Beas and the Sutlej - all of them are the tributaries of the Indus river.
Agriculture is the largest occupation in Punjab.
The Indian state of Punjab was created in 1947, when the Partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan's Punjab Province; the mostly Sikh and Hindu eastern part became India's Punjab state. Many Hindus and Sikhs lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east, and so the partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence. Several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, also became part of India. In 1950, two separate states were created; Punjab included of the former Raj province of Punjab, while the princely states were combined into a new state, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). PEPSU consisted of the princely states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot and Kalsia. Himachal Pradesh was created as a union territory from several princely states and Kangra District. In 1956, PEPSU was merged into Punjab state, and several northern districts of Punjab in the Himalayas were added to Himachal Pradesh.
The capital of undivided Punjab province, Lahore, ended up in Pakistan after partition, so a new capital for Indian Punjab state was built at Chandigarh. On November 1, 1966, the mostly Hindu southeastern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana. Chandigarh was on the border between the two states, and became a separate union territory which serves as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh was due to transfer to Punjab alone in 1986, but the transfer has been delayed pending an agreement on which parts of the Hindi speaking areas of Abohar and Fazilka, currently part of Firozpur District of Punjab, that should be transferred to Haryana in exchange.
Jat history in Punjab
Ahmed Shah Abdali was aware of the rising Maratha power. He marched against them overran Aligarh and concentrated at Panipat. He appealed to all Muslim rulers to unite themselves against Marathas in the name of Islam. Marathas advanced with an Army of 60,000, to meet Abdali. The Marathas also sought help from all Hindu Rajas, but unfortunately none of them gave any favourable response except Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur. In an operational conference held at Delhi Maharaja Suraj Mal gave a valuable advice to Marathas to avoid pitched battles, wage guerilla warfare to harass and exhaust Abdali's forces and then gives a final crushing blow. To implement this scheme, they would be required to leave their women and heavy baggage. Out of the battlefield across River Chambal. But the narrow-minded Marathas Chief Bhau took it as an affront to his strategic ability and rejected this proposal. Maharaja Suraj Mal returned with his force to Bharatpur. Both the armies remained encamped at Panipat for eight months 8 miles apart from each other. Both the forces shirked to take the initiative to attack. The soldiers of these armies, particularly Marathas were not getting adequate rations and pay. The rations for Abdali's forces were supplied from all the territories of Muslim Nawabs, whereas the Marathas were only getting the rations and fodder from Patiala. Abdali appreciated the source of supply through Patiala and he won over Sardar Alha Singh of Patiala by restoration of his lost territory. The Maharattas were compelled to attack, and were badly defeated. This resulted in the downfall of Maratha power. Abdali had also suffered colossal losses, which rendered him incapable of re-entering India; this battle was fought in l761. A rebellion flared up in the Punjab at that time giving another chance to the Sikh Jathedars to establish themselves an army, in the shape of their 12 Misals.
The Sikh Misals
Having broken off from Banda's subordination the chief Sardars conquered different regions of the Punjab with the help of their followers and established, twelve small kingdoms, which were known by the name of Misals. All these Misals were conquered later by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
- The Bhangi Misal - The leather of this Misal was Sardar Hari Singh Dhillon. The Bhangis derive their name from their addiction to 'Bhang'. The capital of this Misal was Amritsar, Poothvar, Jhung, Pindi ghep, Bheerakhusab, Rawalpindi, Hazara, Chinyiot, Gujral, Multan, Sharanpure, Jagadhri, Daodkhel, Dholia, Jidran, Dera Ismail Khan, Bhawalpur, Sunehra, Suryati, Beerwal and Karnala were included in his kingdom. Jhanda Singh son of Hari Singh crossed River Attak and defeated the Pathans. The heavy gun of Ahmed Shah Abdali, which was in the possession of the Subedar of Lahore, was snatched away from the pathans and was brought to Amritsar. This was called 'Bhangian. The last chief of this Misal was Sardar Gujar Singh who was defeated by Ranjit Singh.
- The Kanhiya Misals - Kanhiya Singh was this leader of the Misal. Bhrewal was its stronghold. The territory of Jammu and Pathankot was under his rule. The annual income from this Misal was forty Lakhs. Kalanaur, Bhatala, Sohiyan Fathegarh, Ajnala, Pathankot, Gurdaspur were also the important possessions of the Kanhiyas. Ranjit Singh was married into this Misal.
- The Nakkal Misal - The leader of this Misal belonged to Nakka, Bhunewal, was its capital. Hira Singh Sidhu was the founder of this Misal. This Misal had a large army numbering sixty thousand Ranjit Singh was married into this Misal also. Ranjit Singh took this territory away from a careless chief and handed it over to his nephew Kharak Singh.
- The Dule Walia Misal - Tara Singh Gheba was the founder of this Misal. He was a far-sighted man He had predicted that the young man (Ranjit Singh) would disembody all the Misals. In view of this he began to give charity to the poor and needy persons. He had an army of 6,000 soldiers and annual income from the Misal was twenty Lakh Rupees. The important possessions of this Misal were Kheri Khamane, Sialiba, Adhran, Rupar, Dharam kot, Ghanghorana, Bundewal, Beccani, Siahkot, Nakodar. The Chief of this Misal plundered the territories across River Jamuna. They took many guns from the Red Fort of Delhi. This Misal was also annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
- The Kaporian Misal - The leader of this Misal was Kapora Singh. He hailed from village Sarki. The founder of this Misal was Sham Singh. The annual income of this Misal was forty Lakhs and the standing army was thirteen thousand. Sardar Sham Singh invaded Nadir Shah and occupied the territory across River Sutlej. He defeated the Nawabs of Jalalabad and Loharu. He also fought against George Thompson and having crossed the River Jamuna. invaded and plundered Koil,( Aligarh) Hathras. Ghaziabad, Rampur, Bareilly, KashGanj, and Chandosi etc. Sardar Bhaghail Singh got his territory back from Raja Amar Singh of Patiala after a long and tough fight. He received fifty thousand Rupees cash from Akbar II and received the royal word, to get the Gurudwara Sis Ganj completed. Bhagail Singh remained peacefully in Haryana till his last days with Kaithal as his Capital.
- The Kalsa Misal - This Misal was a branch of Larsian. The founder of this Misal was Sardar Gurbax Singh of Ralsian Village. His son was Jodh Singh.
- The Faizal Purian Misal - The leader of this Misal was Chaudhary Daleep Singh who was a true follower of the Panth, The annual income of this Misal was five Lakh. Daleep Singh, himself received Pahul from Guru Gobind Singh. His son Kapura Singh converted all the Jats of these territories into Sikhs. His son Budh Singh constructed the sacred tank of Taran Taran at a cost of Rupees one lakh.
- The RamGarhia Misal - The leader and founder of this Misals was Jassa Singh Tarkhan, Ramgarhia, This misal was as big as the Bhangi Misal. Sardar Jassa Singh was very vain and haughty. Maharaja Ranjit Singh put him into prison but later pardoned him and gave him a high rank in his army.
- The Nishanian Wali Misal - The leaders of this Misal were brave and fearless. During the invasions they led the army as an advanced guard with the insignia of the Panth. Their strong hold was Ambala. They got Lakhs of Rupees annually as the share of the Government. Singhwala, Khanna, Doraha, Sandm, Zika, Ambala, Jhoran, Shahabad and Lashkari Khan were their Parganas.
- The Shahidan Waif Misal - Eight chiefs of this misal were killed one after an-other while serving the Panth. They helped Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Bahadur whole heartedly against Nawab Jehan Khan. Deep Singh1 Sindhu, Gurubax Singh, Suddha Singh, Buddha Singh, Sher Singh, Durga Singh, Basant Singh and Hira Singh were the chief who laid their lives for the Panth.
- The Ahluwalia Misal - The leader of this Misal was Sandhu Singh, a Jat of the 'Kalal' or distiller caste. Butthe true founder was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia so thisMisal was named after him as Ahluwalian Misal. This hisal lost its existence after the war of the Sikhs with the British.
- The Sukar Chakian Misal - Begha Mal Bhathi belonged to Suker Chak village. He was the founder of this Misal. Afterwards, Budha Singh, Charat Singh, Sardar Maha Singh held the reins of 'Sardari'. The most powerful of the Sukar Chakia Misal was Ranjit Singh son of Maha Singh. He conquered all the Misals and founded the Sikh State with Lahore as its Capital. He was called the 'Lion of the Punjab'. Budha Singh was the first Sikh who receieved Pahul from Guru Gobind Singh. Donda Singh was the second brother of Charat Singh, whose heirs were known as Sindhan Wala.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh ascended the throne at the age of 11 years and his mother Raj Kaur looked after the administration during his minority. His father-in-Law Jai Singh who belonged to Kanhiyan Misal had also died. His Mother-in-law Sada Kaur proved to be a lady of great courage and sagacity. She used to put on a man's robe and bear arms and became the leader of the troops of both the misa's. Gradually they began to annex the territory belonging to other Misals and by the time Ranjit Singh grew up his territory had extended considerably.
In 1794 Shah Zaman, grand son of Ahmad Shah Durani attacked and occupied Lahore. He returned only because of the fear of an invasion by the Iranians and Lahore was reoccupied by the Sardars of the Bhangian Misal. Shah Zaman had left behind 12 heavy euns because of floods in the river Jhelum.
Ranjit Singh succeeded in taking 8 guns out of the river and sent them to Shah Zaman in Kabul. For this he was given the title of Raja and also the permission to occupy Lahore. First of all Ranjit Singh decided to subjugate two big Misals of Bhangian and Ramgarhian. Thereafter he succeeded in defeating all the other Misals and various Nawabs.
The British who in by then become master of the greater part of India except the Punjab were very farsighted rulers. They immediately made friendship with Ranjit Singh and thus prevented his expansion towards the East. This agreement was made on 25th April 1809. Thereafter Raja Ranjit Singh spent all his life in fighting against the Pathans and making them acknowledge his supremacy. The Pathan women used to frighten their children by the name of Hari Singh Nalwa.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was devotee of Sadhus. He died June 1839. His army included Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs.
In administration he did not like any interference by the Jats. With this policy, he committed a big mistake. He appointed three Dogra Sardars Dhyan Singh, Gulab Singh and Suchet Singh, belonging to the same family as the sole administrators both in civil and military affairs. After the death of Ranjit Singh they were responsible for civil war amongst the Sikhs, but ultimately the Dogra Sardars carved out the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir for themselves.
After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh his eldest son Kanwar Kharak Singh ascended the throne. He was not a capable man, but he did not permit his minister Dhyan Singh to do what he liked. At the age of 28, Kharak Singh was declared insance and then got murdered. It is said that he was murdered by Dhyan Singh. When they returned after cremating the body of Raja Kharak Singh, a door fell mysteriously on the head of Naunihal Singh and he died instantaneously.
Thereafter, Dhayan Singh suceeded in convincing the Rani of Kharak Singk that the throne should not go to Sher Singh. It was announced that the Rani of Naunihal Singh was pregnant and Sher Singh's son Pratap Singh should not be considered the claimant to the throne. It was also decided that Sher Singh should retire to his jagir in Patiala. He accepted it gladly.
In the absence of Sher Singh, Sardar Saindha Walia and Dhyan Singh started conspiracies with the help of the British. Thereupon, Sher Singh decided to seize the throne forcibly. Rani Zidhan was killed by a maid servant. A year after this event Sardar Lahana Singh and Ajit Singh Sidhanwalia,who were cousins of Ranjit Sineh, killed Sher Singh and Pratap Singh and placed Daleep Singh, the youngest son of Ranjit Singh, on the throne and put a Tilak on his forehead with the blood of their fingers. Daleep Singh's mother Rani Chand Kaur, became his guardian and Hira Singh, son of Dhyan Singh, became the minister. But he was killed by the Sikh Sardars. On hearing this news, an elder brother of Daleep Singh, named Pishora Singh declared himself an independent ruler in the fort of Attock. Mantri Jawahar Singh, grandson, of last Mantri Dhyan Singh, sent Sardar Chattur Singh Attariwala, and Tiwana Sardar Fateh Khan Motiyanwala against Pishora Singh but later they joined with Pishora Singh promising him the throne of Lahore.
One night, however, they throttled him to death in his camp. Later on, these two Sardars were also killed by other Sikhs.
Ultimately there was a revolt in the army of Daleep Singh and the soldiers demanded higher wages. His clever mother, Chand Kaur, thought it best to bring the army into conflict with the British and provoked them to invade British territory across the river Satluj and thus gain higher wages. At the same time she sent a letter to British Governor informing him how the rebel troops were marching against the British and warned them that if after conquering those forces they would try to occupy her territory across the river Satluj she would not be responsible for the consequences. In December 1845 there was a severe battle at Mudki between the British and the Sikh troops, in which the British came out victorious.
The next battle at Firoz Shah was a draw. In 1846, Sir Henry Smith defeated the Sikhs at Aliwal-In 1847, there was another battle at Sobraon in which the Sikhs lost 8,000 soldiers and the British 2500. The Sikhs had to give away their territory between the rivers Bias and Satluj, as war indemnity to the British.
Jammu and Kashmir was taken over by Gulab Singh in return for one crore of Rupees.
Thereafter, MoolRaj, Governor of Multan killed two British Officers. Lord Lake marched against him with 74,000 troops and 40 guns. The Sikhs were supported by Mohammed Kabuli. In this war 24th Regiment of the British Army suffered heavy losses. Ultimately in the battle of Gujrat the Sikhs were defeated and the British occupied the Sikh kingdom. Maharaja Daleep Singh was given a handsome pension and sent away to England, where he lived for the rest of his life.
States and principalities of Jats
The gotra of this royal dynasty is Siddhu. Sidhu Brar belonged to the Bhati gotra. According to their history, their ancestors, having been ousted from Ghazni, had come to India in Yudhishthiri Samvat 3008. The leader was either Bhattrak, the founder of Bhati gotra, or his father. Bhatinda and Bhatner( Bhatnair) were named after him. Among the successors of Sidhu, Phool was a lucky man and his decendants founded various states like Nabha, Patiala, Jind, Bhadaur, Bhalaur, Nodhgarh, Faridkot, Malodh etc.
Patiala was one of the four big states of India. When the leaders of the Sikh Panth, taking advantage of the weakness of the Mughul dynasty, became determined to extend their power, one of their leaders was Alha Singh, son of Chaudhary Rama, who fought against Ahmed Shah Abdali. 20,000 of his followers were killed. To earn his friendship Ahmed Shah returned his territory. After Abdali's return to Kabul, Allha Singh annexed the territory of Sirhind also his son, Sardar Amer Singh, got the title of Raja from Kabul.
Raja Karan Singh of this dynasty helped the British to suppress the 1857 uprising. As a reward states Kaithal and Baghat and several Parganas belonging to Nawab of Jhajjar were given to him.
Maharaja Bhupinder Singh, seventh in the dynasty occupied a high place among other princes. He brought about improvement in all spheres. The Patiala forces secured high position in games under his leadership.
After his death, his son Yadvendra Singh succeeded to the throne and proved to be a very good ruler and administrator. During his rule the state merged in the Indian Union.
Phool's grandson, Sardar Gajpal Singh, was the founder of this state. He married his daughter who was the mother of Ranjit Singh to Sardar Mahan Singh Sukharchakiya. In 1772 AD Emperor Shah Alam gave him the title of Raja. In 1773 he was victorious in the battle of Sirhind and annexed certain parts of Sirhind. Later he also seized Rohtak and Dadri. As a reward of helping the British in the 1857 uprisisng, Lord Lake granted him various parganas of Gohana.
Sardar Hamir Singh, in the fourth generation of Phool, obtained a Jagir in Kapurgarh and Sangrur belonging to Chaudhary Taloka. After the conquest of Sirhind the pargana of Molodhgarh came into his share. The Annual income of this state was Rs. 1,30,000.
Faridkot state came into existence in the 12th generation of Phool and was founded, in 1600 AD by Kapur Singh. His grandson, Amir Singh, extended the territories. He fought two wars against Ranjit Singh. The annual income of this state was Rs 3,54,800.
Randhawa Chiefs of Talwandi
In 1640 AD Chaudhary Randhir Chand founded the village Bhandahi on arrival from Rajputana( Rajastana) and his grandson Targha founded Talwandi. In the fourth dynasty Pradhan Chand's son Santosh Singh adopted Sikhism. Working in the Jattha of Sardar Jai Singh he obtained Banga Talwandi as a Jagir.
Randhawa Chief of Khundha
The ancestor of this dynasty, Randhawa, was very famous in Rajasthan. His son Kajal Singh, became the leader of a Jattha in Patiala and worked with enthusiasm and occupied the Parganas of Kowshera, Jafarwal, Khurha and Shahpur.
Mann chiefs of Bhaga
Chaudhary Amar Singh Mann, resident of Bhaga joined the Kanhaiya Misal and annexed the Pargana, of Sokalgarh, Sujanpur Dharmakot and Dharampur.
Mann chiefs of Mughal Chak
Chaudhary Ladha Mann of this dynasty, came from Sidipur Lowa in Rohtak district and settled down in Gujaranwala. He founded a small village named Maina. Thereafter, he became the Chaudhary of 22 villages. Sardar Mahatab Singh of this dynasty occupied 82 villages due to the weakness of the Mughal Emperor. He was a member of the Bhangi Misal.
Siddhu chief of Saranwali
The leader of this dynasty, Hasan, fought fierce battles against the people of Kariya community. Later, they settled down in Gurdaspur and his widow daughter was married to Ranjit Singh's elder son Kharak Singh. The annual income of this Jagir was Rs. 36,000.
Sindhu chiefs of Badala
Sardar Mochal Singh, leader of this dynasty, founded the village of Mochal near Uska. After several generations Chaudhary Durga Das was appointed Chaudhary on behalf of the Moghuls. Later Sardar Mahtab Singh occupied 82 villages due to the weakness of the Mughal emperor. He was a member of Bhangi Misal.
Chiefs of Kalas Bazwa
Chaudhary Manga was a famous leader of this dynasty. Both Sikh and Muslim descendants of Chaudhary Manga worship at his fortress. His son, Kalas, obtained a Jagir. Dewan Singh son of Jai Chand Jogi, in this dynasty adopted Sikhism and was an important leader of the Bhangian Misal. Sardar Hari Singh Dhillon adopted him as his Dharmputra. In 1816 AD the daughter of Sardar Joth Sngh was married to Ranjit Singh, son of Kharak Singh.
Rajasthan is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. It borders Pakistan to the west, Gujarat to the southwest, Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to the northeast and Punjab to the north. Rajasthan covers an area of 342,239 km².
The state capital is Jaipur. Geographical features include the Thar Desert in western Rajasthan and the termination of the Ghaggar River. One of the world's oldest mountain ranges, the Aravalli Range, cradles the only hill station of Rajasthan, Mount Abu, and its world famous Dilwara Temples. Eastern Rajasthan has two national tiger reserves, Ranthambore and Sariska, as well as Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, famous for its bird life.
Rajasthan was earlier called Rajputana (state of Rajputs) after the ruling class of Rajputs. Rajput clans rose to prominence in the 6th century, establishing kingdoms in Rajasthan and across northern India. A number of Rajput states became tributaries to the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire during those empires' peak of expansion. As these empires weakened, the Rajputs reasserted their independence. With the decline of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century, Rajputana become more and more independent. The Rajput kings concluded treaties with the British in the early 19th century, accepting British sovereignty. Ajmer became a province of British India, while the autonomous Rajput states and a few non-Rajput states (Tonk, Bharatpur, and Dholpur) were organized into the Rajputana Agency. Bharatpur and Dholpur were Jat states.
The Rajputana name of Rajasthan came into existence in the rule of Akbar but it did not get much publicity. Rajputana name come into use after Col James Tod wrote his book ‘Rajasthan’ at the time of British rule.
Jat population in Rajasthan
The exact Jat population in Rajasthan at present is not available as there is no caste wise census after 1931 in India. We can take 1931 Jat population as an indication of the proportion of it to the other castes. It can also be extrapolated on the ration of 2001 census and 1931 census, which can give approximate Jat population.
The total population of India in 1931 was 27.09 crore and in 2001 was 102.7 crore. Thus there is an increase of 3.681 times. On this basis the present Jat population in Rajasthan must be 3.681 times 1142025 = 4203800. Thus we can say population of Jats in Rajasthan is 4203800.
Jat population 1931
Thakur Deshraj has given an analysis of Jat population in Rajasthan as on 1931. Rajasthan was called Rajputana prior to independence. As per 1931 census the population of Jats in Rajasthan was as under:
Total Jat population…. 1142025
The population of jats in then princely states where they were in sizable proportion was as under:
Bisnoi jats mainly inhabited the areas of Bikaner, Jaipur, Bharatpur, Marwar, Kishangarh and Mewar and their combined population was 69873.
Highest Jat density areas
Thakur Deshraj has mentioned that the maximum density of Jats was in following tehsils in each princely state as under:
- Bharatpur state – Dyodi, Deeg, Kumher and Nadwai
- Bikaner state – All tehsils
- Jaipur state – Malpura, Sambhar, Shekhawati, Torawati, Khetri and Sikar
- Kishangarh stae – Arai, Kishangarh, Rupnagar and Sarwar
- Marwar state – Bilada, Didwana, Jodhpur, Malani, Merta, Nagaur, Parwatsar and Sambhar
- Mewar state – Bhilwara, Kapsin and Rasmin
- The population of Jats in Rajasthan was more than all other castes, which was 9.28 % of total population.
- In some of princely states their population was as high as 23 % of total population.
- The population of Rajputs in the state was 633830, which was 5.65 % of total population.
- The total Jat population including Bisnois was double of Rajputs.
- Jats were the inhabitants of Rajasthan from much earlier periods.
Rajputana name for Rajasthan prior to independence creates confusion as if Rajput population is in majority in this state. Thakur Deshraj has provided facts that total Jat population in Rajasthan in 1931 census was 11,42,025 where as Rajput population was 6,33,830. Thus Jats were about double the population of Rajputs. Shekhawati was part of Jaipur state, which had the highest Jat population of 3,13,609. In some of the princely states it was about 25 percent of total population, forming the single largest caste.  As per Imperial Gazeteer of India v-8, p-22, More than 44 per cent of the population in Bhadra tehsil in 1901, were Jats at that time. 
Historical traditions are that Jats, Bhils, Ahirs, Gujars, Meenas and some other tribes had a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan along with Rajputs. All these tribes had to suffer great difficulties to protect their culture and the land. Millions of them martyred for this land. ‘The Hinduan Suraj’ title to Udaipur was due to Bhils. Jats had been fighting since beginning. Gujars had been exterminated in Bhinmal and Ajmer areas fighting with the invaders. Bhils ruled Kota and Bundi one time. Gujars were sardars in Alwar, Jodhpur and Ajmer areas. 
The truth is that purohits, Charans and Court poets out of greed for money and land gave prominence to Rajputs. Later James Tod wrote annals after taking bribe from Maharaja Udaipur and Maharaja Jodhpur of the Rajputana state. He was biased towards these states and Rajputs. The earlier contributions of warriors and protectors of the land Jats, Bhils, Gujars and Meenas were neglected and lost in the history. 
[Jats]] lived in the Thar Desert since ancient times according to the puranic sources. They were also settled in Sindh and Punjab who migrated to the desert area of Rajasthan from time to time. The Author of the book ‘India of the dark ages’ writes that Jat republics were present in Rajasthan. Rule of Yaudheyas in desert area and naga Jats in Nagaur has been mentioned.  These republics were there till the rule of Harshavardhana. After the fall Harsha in 647 AD, the Jat republics weakened due to invasions by Mugals, Turks, Muslims and Yavanas. In the sixth and seventh century when new Agnikula clan of Rajputas was created in mount Abu, many of the Jat clans merged in them. Rajput sangha was formed from Gujar clans also. The Jat clans who joined Rajput sangha were termed Rajputs. Jat clans who did not leave the Vedic tradition of widow marriage remained in Jat sangha. Later during Muslim rule, to avoid the excesses by Mugals some of these Rajputs started child marriages of girls and the widow marriages, these groups left Rajput sangha and joined again the Jats and Gurjars. According to the records of Bhats, the rule of Anangapal and Prithvi Raj Chauhan was on these Jat areas of Ajmer, Sambhar, Fulera, and Shekhawati and up to Delhi. After the fall of Prithvi Raj Chauhan, there was no alternative left for these clans except to join the Jat sangha. The large number of common clans amongst Rajputs, Jats and Gurjars indicates that intermixing of clans with these sanghas was a trend at that time. 
Jat Gotras found in Rajasthan
Thakur Deshraj had compiled a list of about 700 Jat gotras in Rajasthan. The gotras in Rajasthan were based ontheir Vans, in some cases on individual names, in some cases based on villages etc. Many jat gotras were rulers in Rajasthan in some part or the other. Some of the gotras are given below which needs to be expanded:
A: Abusaria, Achra, Agre, Ahlawat, Ajmeria, Asiagh,
B: Badsara, Bagaria, Bagarwa, Bagrawat, Bajad, Bajdolia, Bajolia, Bajiya, Balauda, Balhara, Bana, Bangarwa, Barala, Barjati, Barkesia, Batar, Bayala, Beda, Beerda, Behda, Beniwal, Berwal, Bhadia, Bhadu, Bhagaur, Bhainri, Bhakar, Bhamu, Bhanwaria, Bhawala, Bheda, Bhinchar, Bhind, Bhukar, Bhuria, Bidiyasar, Bijarnia, Birda, Birk, Bochalya, Boran, Budania, Bugalia, Burdak, Buri,
C: Chahar, Chandelia, Chhabarwal, Chharot, Chilka, Chopra,
D: Daara, Dabas, Dadarwal, Dagur, Dahiya, Dandakh, Dangi, Dara, Dehru, Devanda, Dhaka, Dhatrawal, Dhaulya, Dhanger, Dhankad, Dhariwal, Dhayal, Dhindel, Dhinwa, Dodwadia, Doodhwal, Dookya, Dorwal, Dotasara, Dudi, Dular,
F: Fageria, Fanan, Fandan, Faraswal, Fardolia, Faujdar, Fogawat,
G: Gahlot, Gaina, Gajraj, Gandas, Garewal, Garhwal, Garwal, Gawaria, Genan, Ghosalia, Githala, Godara, Gora, Gugal, Guleria,
H: Haritwal, Hudda,
J: Jajr, Jakhar, Jandu, Jangoo, Jatrana, Jethoo, Jewalia, Jhajharia, Jhuria, Johiya,
K: Kajla, Kak, Kakodia, Kaler, Kalirawna, Kalwania, Kankoria, Kapuria, Karir, Karwa, Karwasra, Kasania, Kaswa, Katewa, Khairwa, Khakal, Kharbas, Kharinta, Kharra, Khedar, Khekarel, Khichar, Khileri, Khokhar, Khyalia, Kiliraya, Kirdolia, Kok, Koak, Kothari, Kudi, Kukania, Kulhar, Kulhari,
L: Laboria, Lahri, Lakhlan, Lamba, Lamoria, Lathar, Lavaria, Legha, Lora, Lomrod, Loyal,
M: Maan, Madrak, Mahia, Mahla, Mali, Mandia, Mandiwal, Mangawa, Manju, Manth, Matwa, Mawlia, Mechu, Meel, Mehria, Mirdha, Moond, Munda, Mundiyada, Muwal,
N: Naga, Nain, Natwaria, Nehra, Nitharwal, Nyol,
P: Pachar, Padgad, Palasian, Palsania, Pander, Panwar, Patel, Pawaria, Phogat, Pilania, Piploda, Premi, Punia,
R: Rabar, Rabia, Rad, Rajharia, Ranwa, Rao, Rathi, Raukas, Rayal, Repswal, Rewad, Risaldar, Ruhela, Rulania,
S: Sain, Sakuniya, Samota, Sangwan, Saran, Sarawag, Set, Sevag, Sewda, Sheoran, Sheshma, Singal, Sinsinwal, Siyak, Sohu, Sunda, Sutla, sindher, T: Takhar, Techra, Tetarwal, Thalod, Thebad, Thori,
Famous Jat people of Rajasthan
Badan Singh, Chaudhary Kumbha Ram Arya, Churaman, Baldev Ram Mirdha, Dr. Balram Jakhar, Daulatram Saharan, Gyan Prakash Pilania, Gokula, Hari Singh Burdak, Karmabai, Kunwar Natwar Singh, Lothoo Nitharwal, Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharani Kishori, Nathuram Mirdha, Parasram Maderna, Raja Ram, Shis Ram Ola, Sona Ram, Swami Keshwanand, Tejaji, Thakur Deshraj, R.S.Paroda,
Uttar Pradesh Urdu: اتر پردیش) also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., means the 'northern province'. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India.
Uttar Pradesh covers a large part of the highly fertile and densely populated upper Gangetic plain. It shares an international border with Nepal and is bounded by the Indian states of Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar. The administrative and legislative capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow; its high court is based at Allahabad. Other notable cities in Uttar Pradesh include NOIDA, Agra, Mathura, Aligarh, Varanasi (Banaras), Gorakhpur, Kanpur and Meerut.
Uttar Pradesh has an important place in the history of Hinduism, as well as the history of ancient India. Control over the region was vital to the power and stability of all of India's empires and kingdoms - of Hindus, Muslims and Europeans.
The ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala in Ayodhya, where Lord Rama of the Ramayana believed to have reigned was located here and Lord Krishna, revered as the eighth Avatara of Vishnu, is believed to have been born in the city of Mathura.
The Mahabharat war and the aftermath took part in the area between Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. It was ruled under King Yudhishtira after the Mahabharat.
After that, this area was sometimes divided between petty kingdoms or formed important parts of larger empires from the east or the west, including the Mauryan, Guptas and Kushan empires.
The Kannauj Empire originated from the heart of the Ganga Yamuna Doab and covered areas from Afghanistan to Kashmir, Bengal and the Vindhyas. This empire was at its zenith during the reign of Harshavardhana.
Jats in Uttar Pradesh
The exact Jat population in Uttar Pradesh at present is not available as there is no caste wise census after 1931 in India. We can take 1931 Jat population as an indication of the proportion of it to the other castes. It can also be extrapolated on the ration of 2001 census and 1931 census, which can give approximate Jat population.
The total population of India in 1931 was 27.09 crore and in 2001 was 102.7 crore. Thus there is an increase of 3.681 times. On this basis the present Jat population in Uttar Pradesh must be 3.681 times 759830 = 2796900. Thus we can say population of Hindu Jats in Uttar Pradesh is 2796900.
Jat population 1931
Thakur Deshraj has given an analysis of Jat population in Uttar Pradesh as on 1931. Uttar Pradesh was called United Province prior to independence. As per 1931 census the population of Jats in Uttar Pradesh was as under:
The population of Jats in then 11 districts of the state where they were in sizable proportion was as under:
Meerut ...........199533 (26.26 %)
Mathura..........124277 (16.36 %)
Aligarh ............92886 (12.22 %)
Bulandsahr ......82385 (10.84 %)
Muzaffarnagar..75499 (09.97 %)
Agra ...............53446 (07.03 %)
Bijnore ...........52786 (06.95 %)
Muradabad ......30184 (03.97 %)
Saharanpur .....10902 (01.43 %)
Bareli ...............6074 (00.80 %)
Badayun ...........4011 (00.53 %)
Thus the 96.34 % population of Hindu Jats was in above 11 districts. The rest 24 districts like Dehradun, Farrukhabad, Itawa, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mirjapur, Gazipur, Balia, Gorakhpur, Basti, Azamgarh, Mainpuri, Etah, Shahjahanpur,Pilibhit, Jhansi, Jalon, Hamirpur, Banda, Nainital, Almoda, Garhwal had a combines Hindu Jat population of 27847 (3.66 %).
Martyrs of Kargil war from Uttar Pradesh
Date of Martyrdom, Unit
Dahrmvir Singh (Sepoy)
30 May 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Ram Vir Singh Chahar (Lance Naik)
06 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Shyam Vir Singh Chahar (Naik)
Nagala Jayram (Agra)
09 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Kumar Singh Sogarwal Vir Chakra (Havildar)
Baseri Kaji (Agra)
07 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Soran Singh Kuntal (Sepoy)
Ummed ki Nagaria (Mathura)
21 June 1999, (Unit-04 Jat Regiment)
Ravikaran Singh (Sepoy)
-- -- 1999, (Unit-18 Grenadiers Regiment)
Satya Vir Singh (Sepoy)
Bhutiya ka Nagala (Hathras)
07 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Gajpal Singh (Sepoy)
Nagala Chaudhary (Hathras)
30 May 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Naresh Singh Sinsinwar (Sepoy)
Chhoti Ballabh (Aligarh)
15 May 1999, (Unit-04 Jat Regiment)
Gitam Singh (Sepoy)
03 July 1999, (Unit-08 Jat Regiment, 5 Rashtriya Rifles)
Prempal Singh (Sepoy)
Khem ka Bans,Pachehra (Aligarh)
04 July 1999, (Unit-09 Mahar Regiment)
Raj Vir Singh (Naib Subedar)
25 July 1999, (Unit-12 Jat Regiment)
Raj Singh (Sepoy)
06 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Rishipal Singh Dagar (Naik)
07 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Kanchhi Singh (Sepoy)
06 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Surendra Singh (Naik)
12 June 1999, (Unit- Rajputana Regiment)
Om Prakash Singh (--)
-- -- 1999, (Unit---)
Subodh Kumar Tomar (Sepoy)
18 June 1999, (Unit-21 Jat Regiment, 5 Rashtriya Rifles)
Jitendra Singh (Sepoy)
Jiwana Golian (Meerut)
07 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Yash Vir Singh (Havildar)
-- -- 1999, (Unit---)
Narendra Singh (Sepoy)
02 June 1999, (Unit-04 Jat Regiment)
Bachchan Singh (Lance Naik)
-- -- 1999, (Unit---)
Satish Kumar (--)
-- -- 1999, (Unit-236 Bengal Engi Regiment)
Baljit Singh (Sepoy)
Nawabganj Topkhana (Rampur)
09 July 1999, (Unit-171 Field Regiment)
Rajendra Singh (Sepoy)
08 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Anil Kumar Tomar (Sepoy)
07 July 1999, (Unit-17 Jat Regiment)
Arvind Singh (Grenadier)
Milak Chhavi (Muradabad)
30 June 1999, (Unit-22 Grenadiers Regiment)
Chaman Singh Tewatia (Naik)
12 June 1999, (Unit- Rajputana Regiment)
Surinder Singh (Havildar)
-- -- 1999, (Unit-08 Sikh Regiment)
Vinderpal Singh (--)
-- -- 1999, (Unit---)
Role of Jat in Independence Movement
Populating a region which witnessed repeated invasions over a thousand years, and frequent change of rulers, the Jats developed into a fiercely independent people. Their relations with most of the rulers were strained at best. Even under the Mughal period, they maintained a certain degree of autonomy. Later with the floundering of the Mughal power, they became increasingly powerful, even though only a handful of states including Bharatpur were under Jat rule.
The First War of Independence of 1857
The response of the Jats to the happenings in 1857 was varied and two dominent factions were those of the Dahiyas of Sampla (allied to the Hoodas and Latmars) and the Maliks or Ghatwalas of Gohana tahsil. The Dahiyas and Bahniwals resisted the British in 1857, while the Haulanias Maliks were friendly towards them. The Dahiyas were an aggreived lot because their land had been constantly damaged by reh (saline efflorescence). The Maliks on the other hand had the benefit of canal irrigation.
The variety of response can be linked to several factors, including the extension of agriculture and the corrosponding tension between different clans to wield power and control territory, the segmentation of lineage and lack of an organised leadership.
The Jats of the Haryana Sarv Khap who rose up against British rule had considerable initial successes. However they were not supported by some petty rulers in Punjab and Rajasthan, who actively aided the British. The first war of independence failed, and the Jats were punished.
Independence Movement in the 20th Century
The independence movement led by the Congress had a limited appeal in the northern rural regions. In general, attempts by the Congress to mobilize the Jat populace failed. This was because of a multitude of reasons, not in the least because the Congress was seen as representing essentially urban interests. The Jats' political association was with the Zamindar League and then the Unionist Party, which represented the peasant interests much better.
If the Jats were detached from the nationalist aspirations, they were also disinterested in the protection of the imperial system. The absence of any rethoric to uphold the imperial structures underlines the fact that the relationship with the colonial state was not fundamental to the Jat identity. In fact, there are clear signs their uneasy and sometimes hostile interactions.
Jats were recruited in large numbers in the army during the wars. This was seen as an important step for the growth of the community by leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram. Major recruitement drives were undertaken by him, but the underlying theme of his campaign was independence for India after the Second World War.
Many Jats joined the Indian National Army under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose and fought against the British.
The Jats, who formed the bulk of the British Indian Army, fought and died for freedom from Nazi tyranny in continents far from their homes and families. With the end of the war, they would accept no less than complete freedom in their homeland. This had its own effect in hastening the end of British Colonial rule
Lohchab Gotra of Jats
Lohchab or Arh is gotra of Jats found in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. The King Arh was in fourth generation of Ardas and is mentioned in many stories of Puranas. He was a brave Warrior. According to Todd's Rajasthan the origin of the Arh dynasty cannot be traced out, but a few gotras of this dynasty are found among the Jats.
Very few Jats belonging to this gotra are found to day. They have two villages in Haryana -Bupaniya and Shahpur, two villages in Delhi - Auchandi & one in South Delhi, one village In Uttar Pradesh - Somewhere in Bagpat District.
Notable persons of this gotra
Choudhary Karan Singh Lohchab from Katlupur, Gohana in haryana is Ex DEO. A very well known personality in British India. Known for his integrity values and service to people in educational field and in general also.
Dr Hari Singh Lohchab is from Katlupur, Gohana in Haryana. He is a very well known skilled veternary surgion, currently Dy. Director, posted in Gohana.Mohan Singh Lohchab
Mohan Singh Lohchab is from Katlupur, Gohana in Haryana is Ex Director.
Vivek Lohchab is the 22 year awardee of “Iron Boy of the year 2006’ from Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. He is resident of Rohtak, Haryana. He is son of Azad Singh, cashier in Cooperative bank, and Ramrati, a JBT teacher.
Vivek did BE Mechanical from Punjab Engineering College and PG Diploma in Management from IIM Bangalore. He obtained 99.96 percent in CAT examination and was first in rank through out India.
Lieut-Gen O.S. Lohchab (retd) born in March, 1943 hails from Bupania village in Jhajjar district of Haryana. He has taken over as the new Chairman of the Haryana Vidyut Prasaran Nigam, the Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam and the Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam.
He was awarded the 'Param Vishisht Seva Medal', 'The Ati Vishisht Seva Medal' and The Vishisht Seva Medal' during 40 years of his distinguished service in the Army.
He did his Staff College course from Australia and graduated from the National Defence College, Delhi.
He retired as Director-General, Military Intelligence, at Army Headquarters, Delhi. He actively participated in the wars in 1965 and 1971 and also played a major role in the Kargil operations in 1999.
Dr. Samsher Singh Lohchab born in Bupania Village of Jhajjar district of Haryana. He is a very well experienced and welll known ENT surgeon posted at Rohtak Medical college.
Fighter Pilot Sh. Krishan Kr. Lohchab born in Bupania Village of Jhajjar district of Haryana. He is a very intelligent and hardworking He joined in Indian airforce as commissioned by NDA. His father is a farmer and held the post of village Numberdar.
Bupania means the land of water (paani ki bhumi) Basically in mediaval history this village was a muslim riyasat which was looted and defeated by Jats ladakas who were from Maharaja Surajman Army. Jats come from Bharatpur to fight with AhmedShah Abdali. They fight bravely and stayed here permanently occupy this land and property. In this village mostly gotras is Lohchab which was Arh in Bharatpur. During the fight Dada BhimSain who was a fighter in Surajman Army lost his hands and then he broke the sword of enemy by his teeth. Then Maharaj give him the new upadhi Lohchab. Therefore he was called lohchab. Now all are known Lohchab.
Jhajjar ia a district town in Haryana. Inhabited about eight hundred years ago, Jhajjar city has many pages of history engulfed in it , Historical buildings, mausoleums, water-pools having at their banks give the reflection of the historical tradition of this city . At the time of Gori 's attack on the king Prithvi Raj in 1191 A.D., the area of Jhajjar was a deserted forest. There was a town named Malokan in the east of present Jhajjar city, mostly inhabited by Jats. Delhi and its adjoining area was affected worst in the battle between Gori and Prithvi Raj . Most of the villages were deserted adjoining area of Delhi by the devastation of war. Malokan was also among there ill-fated villages. Having left their homes and belongings, the residents of Malokan started living here and there. The rule of Gori was well-established in Delhi. Villages started inhabiting again.
Brave Chajju Jat, resident of Malokan village made an appeal to Emperor Shabuddin Gori to rehabilitate the village . Malokan village had fought bravely to defend the country against the Goris, probably due to that the emperor rejected the appeal of the residents of Malokan and ordered to rehabilitate the village somewhere else, and with this order foundation of Jhajjar city was laid by Chajju Jat.
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